Miscellaneous, brief reports and reports from smaller towns
(1998 – 2001)
Coercion through family bonds
District Dera Ghazi Khan: A mulla, Qazi Munda, of Chah Ismail Wala has thought of an ingenious way to harass Ahmadis. He looks for Ahmadis who are married to non-Ahmadi women, and then undertakes their forced conversion. Recently, he contacted one such Ahmadi, Rahim Bux, and lured him to visit Abdul Haq, a local landlord. There, he was tied up with a rope and threatened with torture. Thus the Qazi made him agree to accompany him to the city, Dera. At Dera, the Ahmadi was made to offer payers in congregation with non-Ahmadis and recant. The victim was told to stay away from Ahmadiyyat or face death. He was told to renew his marriage covenant with his wife. Rahim Bux did not do so, and on return to his village told the whole story to his Ahmadi teacher. A few days later, the Qazi made the same sort of attempt against another Ahmadi, and tried to blackmail him with the threat of a criminal police case under the Anti-Ahmadiyya laws.
These activities caused commotion in the local community. Ahmadis feel harassed.
Slander at mosques
a) Mulla Allah Yar Arshad, the station chief at Rabwah of anti-Ahmadiyya vigilance, occupies here the Bokhari Mosque as his office. In his Friday sermons, rather than guiding his flock to moral and spiritual rejuvenation, he undertakes slander and insults against Ahmadis on the mosque loudspeakers. Authorities do not apply PPC 295A to his outrages. On Friday, August 24, he repeated his routine outbursts. In addition, he innovated a new accusation that ‘Qadianis have been tasked by the British to spread lewdness in Rabwah in league with the police’. He also stated that the authorities had asked him not to disturb the Qadianis excessively, as they thereby get an excuse to seek asylum abroad, and foreign governments admonish Pakistan for violation of human rights. “Qadianis may flee wherever they like. I don’t care; all that I want is that they quit my country,” the mulla blustered.
b) The mulla at Makka Mosque in Mirpur Khas (Sind) was more specific about local action; he wanted social action against Ahmadis. In his Friday sermon of October 12, he urged his flock to impose a social boycott on Ahmadis and to expel Ahmadis from any house that they had given them on rent.
c) A cleric, who qualified from Pir Karam Shah’s madrass in February started coming over to Kharkana to deliver Friday sermons. He acquired a highly disfigured and forged portrait of Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the Holy founder of the Ahmadiyya Community. The miscreant distributed photocopies of the portrait among school children. He urged them to contribute two rupees each to make further copies and put them up all over the village. The cleric was intent upon slander and provocation.
These incidents are too numerous in Pakistan to deserve mention in this Repot, however they do create a charged hostile atmosphere against Ahmadis.
Agitation at Shamsabad, District Qasur
A youth by the name of Ali decided to become a member of the Ahmadiyya Community. His sisters were also sympathetic. Some mullas and relatives came to know of this and got agitated. They wanted a criminal case to be registered against him, and contacted the police. One of them urged the village folk to attack Ahmadi homes. They also tried to take out a procession comprising schoolboys but the headmaster did not allow that. Ali and the local president of Ahmadiyya Community were threatened with murder. Anti-Ahmadiyya literature was distributed extensively in the village. The situation is tense.
Sipah Sahaba (SSP) active at Jehlum
The SSP Jehlum has decided to become very active on the anti-Ahmadiyya front. It remained very tense during March and April. Their members contacted individual Ahmadi traders in the bazaar and threatened them with violence. They also approached the Deputy Commissioner to win co-operation of authorities. The Assistant Commissioner sent for Ahmadis and asked them to explain their position. He made them take off Islamic stickers or calendars etc. from their shops.
Later on, the SSP got hold of a few pages of the Holy Quran published by a local publisher, Book Corner. To the pages were added some pictures and sketches as illustrations. The SSP told the administration and the press that the act amounted to Blasphemy and Qadianis were responsible for it. The SSP planned to start a violent agitation thereby against Ahmadis. Ahmadis promptly denied the accusation and conveyed the real position that the publisher was not an Ahmadi. Thus the SSP’s plan to foment agitation came to nothing.
It was subsequently learnt that SSP had plans to implicate some Ahmadis in Blasphemy cases and create difficulties for them.
The Supreme Head of the Ahmadiyya Community
Hadrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, the supreme Head of the Ahmadiyya Jamaat had to leave Pakistan when in April 1984, after the promulgation of the anti-Ahmadiyya Ordinance XX, condition were created by the government that he was unable to perform his functions in Pakistan. When he left Pakistan, there was not a single charge against him. Since he left, 17 fabricated criminal cases under Ahmadi-specific and other religious laws have been registered against him. These expose him to the risk of long imprisonment, even death under the infamous Blasphemy Law. These cases are maliciously and dishonestly instituted, with the connivance of authorities. These ensure that Hadrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad does not return to Pakistan, as he faces arrest and prosecution immediately on arrival. This situation causes relentless anxiety and anguish to millions of Ahmadis in Pakistan. The state and the society is mindless and insensitive to this great wrong that has been perpetrated against a whole section of Pakistani population for almost two decades.
Disturbance, tension and insecurity all over
Provisions of the anti-Ahmadiyya Ordinance XX apply all over Pakistan including Azad Kashmir. As the evil influence of the mulla is also present, in greater or lesser degree, all over the country, the mischief of this law raises its ugly head wherever the mulla chooses to exert himself. In smaller towns and villages, any grave happening like a murder drives a wedge in the local community, creates serious tension and the inhabitants get divided on the basis of religion. A religious divide, not unlike in Balkans or Beirut precipitates on a small scale like in Takht Hazara and Bhauru. At places where serious developments take place, like desecration of a mosque, arrest or registration of criminal case, the local and nearby Ahmadiyya communities come under great pressure, tension prevails and Ahmadis feel very disturbed because of the unsympathetic attitude of authorities and resulting insecurity. Such situation tends to linger on for months, even years. Their opponents and mullas exploit the sensitive environment and make Ahmadis’ life close to unbearable. Then there is always the possibility of a flare-up which results in further hardship for Ahmadis. The tense ‘Life at Bhauru Village’ was related at some length in 1999 Annual Report. Authorities were informed about it but they took no preventive action. No wonder, the Year 2000 was marked by an attack by the opponents on Ahmadis in which an Ahmadi was killed and a few individuals from both sides were injured. Criminal cases were registered by the police against dozens of persons from both sides, and many arrests were made. As a result the village community life is severely affected and two groups once living as friends, now consider each other as enemies. The same situation prevails at Takht Hazara. The burden and responsibility of these developments rests squarely on authorities and the government who despite full knowledge of the potential evil took no action to nip the evil in the bud. The opinion that ‘the Pakistani police arrives only to collect the dead bodies and register cases’ is not without basis.
Tension prevails and most Ahmadis live severely disturbed lives at all those places mentioned in earlier Sections of this Report where slaughter, riot, murders, desecration of mosques and registration of criminal cases occurred. Those are not repeated in this Section. Only those locations are mentioned below where the mulla is busy preparing the ground for mischief and the fire is summering. In view of the government’s laissez faire attitude towards the mulla, the possibility of still more Ghatialians, Takht Hazaras and Bhaurus cannot be ruled out.
Faisalabad: This is an important industrial town in the Punjab. A sizable Ahmadiyya community lives here. Anti-Ahmadiyya activists are applying a steady pressure, and with the connivance of authorities, have made considerable gains against their beleaguered victims. A number of serious incidents happened here.
a. Anti-Ahmadiyya agitation had been going on in Khyaban Colony area for weeks. The authorities, rather than doing their duty of protecting human rights of a small community, played in the hands of extremists and co-operated with them. On 17 December 1999, the police forcibly prevented Ahmadis to offer their prayers at their Center. On January 2, 2000 the authorities sealed their prayer hall. Mullas took to extensive highly provocative wall chalking in the Colony. Some of the outrageous writings are translated below:
– Mirza, the false prophet, and his fellows are Cursed and Hell-bound.
– Infidel Mirzais are Traitors to both Islam and the Country.
– Those who do not believe in the Finality of the Last Prophet are Infidels and Apostates. We are at War with Them.
– Mirzais are Apostates; thus They are Liable to be put to Death. Sharia Punishment be Imposed upon Them.
– Qadianis and Satan perform the Same Function.
– We cannot Tolerate Qadianis in this Pure Land.
– Guard against Three Evils; Satan, Shehzan and Qadian.
b. In a Friday sermon during August, the local mulla in Madina Township urged the worshipers to move decisively against Ahmadis who congregated at a neighborhood residence for prayers. He gave them the precedence of Khyaban Colony where the joint action of residents had denied the Qadianis the right of worship. “Why the same cannot he done here?” he asked.
c. In the same month one, Tanvir Shah of Rabbani Colony, had an extremely derogatory anti-Ahmadiyya pamphlet published, and circulated it. An Ahmadiyya delegation called on the Commissioner to complain. He issued orders to the DC to take appropriate action. Ahmadis were advised by the Community officials to remain calm.
d. A few workers led by a mulla type have formed a pressure group in Magna Textile Industries Limited, which is owned by an Ahmadi. The mischief monger is working on the basis of religion, to generate industrial unrest in the factory. He has sought help from other mullas who have nothing to do with this Textile industry. During August in two of his letters to mullas he stated:
- We intend to cleanse the factory of Qadianis. Only two Qadianis are left in the laboratory- these will be expelled as well.
- Qadianis defile our crockery in the mess.
- One Qadiani, Abdur Razzaq has been made to recant.
- Workers of the Arzoo Mills and Etmad Mills support us.
- We intend to build a mosque in the factory. We propose to initially build the four walls quickly, so that no one can then dare demolish it.
- Contact me discreetly at the premises on a Friday, as it is closed for being a holiday. If you join us in setting up this mosque, Maulvi Muhammad Hussain will get the credit.
It is obvious that once this mosque is built, it will be conveniently used to generate any amount of unrest and agitation in the factory.
e. Sheikh Muzaffar Ahmad, the District President of the Ahmadiyya Community returned home along with his family on 25 September evening, after two days’ absence. Outside the gate, there still hung a wooden case that once enclosed the electric meter. In that case he found a book that was just about to fall over. He took the book and discovered that it was a copy of the Holy Quran. Some parts of the Book were marked with red crosses and underlines. Obviously, some miscreant had planned a mischief that fortunately failed to materialize.
f. On September 25, a police party visited the Ahmadiyya Mosque and made inquiries about an alleged meeting and conference there, that had not taken place.
g. A team from security and intelligence agencies visited the residence of an Ahmadi, Mr Shah in Millat Colony during dark hours of September 26. They came to make inquiries in the context of a report made by Mulla Faqir Muhammad, the Propaganda Secretary of Majlis Khatame Nabuwwat. The mulla had reported that Mr Shah’s house was a center of Ahmadiyya activities, where Muslim children and adults were induced to come, entertained with sweets etc and coerced to join the Ahmadiyya Community. The agents were told to see for themselves and report as they deemed fit. Having talked to the neighbors, they went back satisfied that nothing objectionable was going on there.
h. Sheikh Saleem Akhtar, owner of the Community House in Madina Town, was contacted on phone by an official who conveyed that someone reported to the Brigadier that the location was being used to entice children to join the Ahmadiyya Jamaat. The official was told that the authorities had already sealed the building there, and it remains sealed to-date.
Authorities obviously act in league with Mullas.
i. The mulla kept on with his relentless drive to upset the Ahmadiyya Community and succeeded by sending a miscreant to the Ahmadiyya mosque, who precipitated a brawl that resulted in the arrest of two Ahmadis, and registration of a criminal case against 10 Ahmadis who all had to seek bail to avoid long detention. A trial will now follow. It is almost certain that the mulla is going to think of fresh initiatives to suppress Ahmadis at Faisalabad to a greater degree.
Muzaffargarh: During August, Allah Wasaya, a leading anti-Ahmadiyya mulla made a tour of a number of such villages in the district, where Ahmadi communities are found. He addressed congregations and told them that Qadianis are the worst of all infidels. According to a press report, he stated that as long as he is alive he would not allow Qadianis raise their head. He had meetings with Khatme Nabuwwat Youth Force personnel and urged them to step up their activities.
In the same district, Mullas held an open air conference in Azizabad near the primary school on 1 November at 10 a.m. They made fiery speeches against Ahmadis and urged the people to undertake complete social boycott of Ahmadis.
Ahmadis had to take precautions, informed the Assistant Commissioner of the situation subsequent to the conference.
Chak Sikandar, District Gujrat: Mubashir Ahmad was forced in November by the local mulla and his gang to recant. He was admitted to their circle in a nocturnal ceremony. Speeches were made in which it was said: ‘Qadianis are going to meet worse treatment than they had at Ghatialian and Takht Hazara, so that their future generations will remember it for long.’
Mullas Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Salim and Zaman were the most provocative.
Kot Rahmat Khan, District Sheikhupura: A local miscreant often invites extremist mullas from other locations to deliver sermons in the village. This gave rise to tension in the two communities, Ahmadis and non-Ahmadis. Ahmadis maintained vigilance to defend themselves in the event of an attack.
Chak 20 Ghugh, District Jhang: Mullas organized an open-air conference in the Ahmadiyya neighbourhood. As it was meant to be provocative, Ahmadis complained to the Assistant Commissioner. He took no action. Ahmadis then approached the Deputy Commissioner who ordered the fundamentalist to shift their venue- and they did.
Shorkot: In this town, mullas held a conference on October 30. Mr Amjad Masood, an Ahmadi has a burger shop. The mullas urged people not to buy anything from his shop. Activists came over to his location and demanded that he close down. Fortunately, no damage was done; but he has lost some customers.
Dera Ghazi Khan: Officials of the Sipah Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) held a closed-door meeting after the Ghatialian incident in which 5 Ahmadis were killed. Thereafter, during the night of 5/6 November, three unknown persons jumped inside the Ahmadiyya mosque. They were noticed by a neighbour, so they left without doing any harm.
L Plot, District Okara: Non-Ahmadi mullas of L Plot kept the pot of social disturbance boiling for some weeks in July and August. An agitation and social boycott was mounted against Ahmadi residents of the village. Some weeks earlier, the opponents invited a magistrate to the village. He took away the Kalima plaque from an Ahmadi’s shop. Later, the police arrived and demolished the niche of the Ahmadiyya mosque. The extremists invited some mullas from other towns, who delivered poisonous anti-Ahmadiyya sermons. Zafar Iqbal and Sufi Mubashir, Ahmadis, were nabbed by a group of fundamentalists and were beaten up. Pushed to the wall, Saleem Ahmad fired in self-defense to free the captives. Miscreants received gunshot wounds that were not serious. The police registered a case against the three Ahmadis and arrested two of them.
Faced by the mounting tension, that became unbearable, four Ahmadi families quit the village and took refuge elsewhere. Most of the Ahmadi men have lost their work.
Hafizabad: An outsider Mulla was invited here on 29 September 2000 for the Friday congregation. In his sermon ,he delivered a great deal of slander and calumny against the Holy Founder of the Ahmadiyya Community. He told them that a Muslim who does not consider Ahmadis as infidels, is himself an infidel. He urged them to implement a complete social boycott against Ahmadis. Leaflets were also distributed.
Mangat Unche, district Hafizabad: The Imam of the local mosque delivered a hateful sermon against Ahmadis. Some religious activists approached the authorities to take action against Ahmadis on the issue of the graveyard, the call to prayers and the posting of Ahmadi teachers etc. Accordingly the police and the administration intervened. This disturbed the community life of the village and caused unnecessary tension.
Chak 35, District Sargodha: Mulla Manzoor Chinioti visited this village in August and made a very poisonous speech against Ahmadis. He told his audience that those who had social relations with Qadianis had their Nikahs (marriage bonds) broken; they should arrange a fresh ceremony to have their marriages restored. Villagers were not pleased with this Fatwa, and jointly rejected it.
Samina, District D.G. Khan: The Anti-Ahmadiyya Majlis Khatme Nabuwwat wrote a threatening letter No. 1060 dated 9 August 2000 to Mian brothers of Dha tribe to take action, by force if necessary, against those who socialized with Mirzais; otherwise they would deal with them themselves with the help of police.
Kot Radha Kishan, District Qasur: Some opponents of the Ahmadiyya Community wrote a few lines on a piece of paper and sent the application to the Resident Magistrate to register a criminal case against the local Ahmadis, in August 2000. The RM directed the police to take suitable action. This was enough to worry Ahmadis who were confronted with protracted criminal litigation and years of imprisonment. They contacted the local folks who gave them full support. Eventually the police and the administration conveyed their assent to withdraw the charges subject to illegal gratification.
District Attock: This district is one of the many where anti-Ahmadiyya activists manage to stoke the fire of hatred one way or another. In May, in the village Kasran, they undertook highly provocative wall-chalking on houses and the local mosque. The writings include: MIRZAI DOGS; THOSE WHO ARE FRIENDS OF MIRZAIS, THEY ARE TRAITORS TO ISLAM; MIRZAIS MUST BE KILLED; MIRZAIS ARE INFIDELS etc. Such wall-chalking in a village does great damage to the peace of the local community. Authorities took no action.
Rajanpur: At the Friday prayers, mullas urged their flock to implement a social boycott against Ahmadis, and sought their commitment to this scheme by show of hands. One of the mullas demanded of the crowd to promise to chop off the nose and ears of Mian Iqbal Ahmad, the District President of the Ahmadiyya Community. Such sermons have had some effect, and Ahmadis did come across a certain amount of social isolation and victimization there.
The authorities took no action against the fiery mulla who promotes violence.
Rabwah, the Ahmadiyya headquarters town is located in District Jhang. As such the behaviour of the district officials is a good indicator of the government policies. Their conduct did not raise any hopes during the year.
a. An Ahmadi died in a village Chak Korwala, and was buried in the local common graveyard. Mullas approached the deputy commissioner and demanded that the Ahmadi dead should be disinterred. The DC sent the SHO who told the Ahmadis to dig up their dead, or face consequences. Ahmadis argued that the graveyard was a common property and they had the same rights over it as the others, unless the authorities allot them another piece of land to bury their dead. The administration decided to consider the proposal.
During April., a community official from Rabwah decided to visit the community at Chak Korwala and address them. The district administration directed the police to intervene, so the event had to be postponed. As it was Friday, the congregational prayers were held. The police raided all the same. They came, made their observations and noted down the names of volunteers on duty on the pretext that the DSP had ordered accordingly.
The authorities support to clerics causes many-faceted problems for Ahmadi citizens.
b. Mullah Ghulam Hussain spoke at length in the Deobandi mosque of Garh Mor on 2 June, 2000, and urged his audience to greater action against Ahmadis. He asked them to implement a social boycott against them and stop all dealings with them. He told them not to allow Ahmadi burials in the village graveyard. He urged them to lodge criminal cases with the police against Ahmadis, based on religious laws. He offered his services to become a ‘complainant’ in such cases and promised legal support. Subsequently he repeated the same mischief, provocation and instructions at Ahmadpur Sial. Ahmadis felt disturbed and threatened.
c. The same mulla joined hands with notorious Mulla Allah Yar Arshad, and addressed congregations during September. He spoke at Jhang and, later, at Wasu Astana. At Shorkot, a team of two mullas and two constables visited the burger shop of Malik Ahmadi, an Ahmadi. They told him to switch off the recitation of the Holy Quran on his audio cassette. They also told him to boldly display his identity at the shop (that he is a Qadiani).
d. There were many problems at Rabwah. These are mentioned in Section 14.
Hazara Division is another pocket where mulla keeps on blowin g hot and rarely cold. Ahmadis of Data have suffered harassment for years. There is always tension in the air and Ahmadis have to use all their tact, forbearance and faith to avoid a major trouble. Hazara Division is another pocket where the mulla keeps on blowing hot, and rarely cold. Although tension and insecurity prevails all the time, special mention may be made of the following:
Haripur: A mulla made a very provocative anti-Ahmadiyya speech in the Kangr Mosque. He declared that Ahmadis were Wajbul Qatl (Deserving death according to Sharia).
The local press was there to give a helping hand. Some headlines:
– Open Proselytizing by Qadianis in Haripur
– Simple folks are being misled by clever talk
The Daily Mahasib- September 25, 2000
– Freedom of Propaganda to Mirzais is dangerous to the Federation-Qazi Rehman Gul
– Non-Muslims should be removed from key posts. Otherwise activists of Khatame Nabuwwat will themselves take action.
The Daily Mahasib; Sept: 25, 2000
Abbotabad: Sipah Sahaba and the Jamaat Islami have adopted a policy of physical violence against Ahmadis rather than registration of criminal legal cases against them. They think the latter helps them in seeking political asylum in other countries.
Mansehra: Mulla Allah Wasaya visited Mansehra as well, and took the Sipah Sahaba and Majlis Khatame Nabuwwat activists in confidence. They, consequently, stepped up-their anti-Ahmadiyya activities. They intercepted a delegation of two Ahmadis who went to visit Mangal village. They were intent upon violence, but refrained on account of intervention of a friend of the visitors.
Data: Data has been continuously in the news concerning persecution of Ahmadis for years. It appears that Ahmadis at Data are not fortunate enough to have their ups and down. The situation never looks up; they have been kept under constant pressure. In July they made another written complaint to the deputy commissioner of the district. They hoped it might help, although their petitions even to the Prime Minister proved futile during the preceding five years. In their petition, dated July 8, 2000 they complained about a mulla and his gang of miscreants. They protested against a social boycott and picketing. They mentioned blaring loudspeakers of the three local mosques that preach hatred and violence. The law of the land forbids all such activities but the police and law enforcing authorities refuse to budge. Ahmadis forwarded a copy of this letter to the Superintendent of Police and one to the Colonel of the District Monitoring Cell. Ahmadis hope some dutiful and fair official would redress their situation. The official effort required for such redress is not much.
Mullas then kept the communal pot at the boiling temperature. They sought administration’s help, and got it more often than not. They approached the DSP and invoked Anti-Ahmadiyya Law; he obliged them by giving orders to an Ahmadi religious teacher to leave Data. On 12th August, miscreants intercepted a five years old Ahmadi child on his way back from school. They treated him harshly, threatened him with beating and made him recant. The little fellow returned home crying. Four days later, Hassan Shah, a drug-pushing felon, intercepted a 13-years old Ahmadi student, Jawad Mahmud and beat him up. At Mahmud’s resistance, the gangster tore open his shirt. When the lad returned home, his mother got very upset and went to the police station to make a report. The police sent the boy to the hospital for a medical report. On hearing of his son’s ordeal, the boy’s father returned home from his job at Haripur. He filed written complaints with the Principal, the AC, the SP and the Army Monitoring Cell. Tension reached danger level in the village.
To add fuel to the fire, Majlis Tahaffuz Khatame Nabuwwat invited Mulla Allah Wasaya to visit the village. He came on September 8 and delivered a venomous Friday sermon that was full of slander and insults against Ahmadis. He stayed on to address a nocturnal session on September 10. He issued the following Fatwas:
- Do not work on Ahmadis’ land.
- Do not buy their fruit and other produce.
- Do not give or take water from them for agriculture.
- Within the same family, if some members are Ahmadis, do not live in the same house with them. Etc.
In his speech, he declared that Ahmadis are Wajibul Qatal (those who must be killed). When all this was being said on loud speaker, the police was present at the site. They, of course, took no action against the fire-brand cleric.
Phagla: Mr Bashir Shah, now residing in Rabwah, went to visit his ancestral village of Phagla. Armed activists of Sipah Sahaba intercepted him. They proposed to set his car on fire. The situation calmed down only when some relatives of Mr Shah intervened. They, however, advised him firmly not to visit Phagla again.
Despite their concern with situation across the border, mullas of Azad Kashmir spare adequate time to make life difficult for Ahmadis. They mounted a major operation in August at Dhudial and managed to scatter most of the Ahmadis from there (for details see Section 13). They were active in Kotli also.
Kotli: A few residents of Kotli had joined the Ahmadiyya Community one and half year ago. However, they kept it confidential. In March, two of them disclosed their conversion. It caused a great reaction among the local mullas, who raised great hue and cry. They tried to drag the converts to courts. They urged them to disown their allegiance to Ahmadi leaders. Fiery speeches were delivered on mosque loukspeaker. People were exhorted to violence. Ahmadis received threatening letters. Opponents moved administrative and departmental authorities to take action against Ahmadis. The situation remained disturbed and Ahmadis felt concerned.
Kotli was hit by a fresh wave of anti-Ahmadiyya agitation again in August 2000. In July, a slanderous and threatening ‘Fatwa’ (religious edict) was issued against Ahmadis and distributed in public. A police raid was made at the Ahmadiyya mosque on 12 August. They found nothing objectionable. On 13 August, some religious extremists nabbed an Ahmadi youth and accused him of preaching. When Ahmadis went to recover the lad, a crowd of almost 30 miscreants attacked them and beat them up. The president of the local Ahmadiyya Community was injured under the eye.
Hyderabad: Encouraged by their achievements at Ghatalian and Takht Hazara, fundamentalists are planning to precipitate more of such incidents. They even say so in their public utterances. Cities like Faisalabad and Hyderabad seem to be on their agenda. In Hyderabad, they focused their attention during November on Goth Lalu Lashari area, and have managed to create the required tension. Extensive anti-Ahmadiyya wall-chalking was done. An anti-Ahmadiyya conference was held in which extremely provocative speeches were delivered. Street urchins get together and provoke Ahmadi residents of the area. On 12 November 2000 they got hold of an Ahmadi youth and beat him up. The incident was reported to the police. They threw stones on Ahmadi worshippers in the mosque at the time of Friday prayers on 10 November. The community again reported the matter to the police who took no action. It was learnt from reliable sources that they had plans to set the mosque on fire. The SDM was then contacted who ordered the police to stand guard and maintain vigilance against any disturbance. Ahmadiyya Community reported the matter to the Army Monitoring Cell, Hyderabad Division on November 13, 2000 in a written application, and requested timely effective action.
An anti-Ahmadiyya conference was held at Ghummanabad also where mullas spoke most provocatively against the Ahmadiyya Community. It was announced that Maulana Noorani (of JUP) would attend a conference on 29 November, and that event would be the last nail in the Ahmadiyya coffin.
Mirpur Khas: Anti-Ahmadiyya wall chalking was undertaken in Punhor Colony during November. Some slogans:
Qadianis are infidels
Qadianis reject the Quran
Qadianis are Wajibul Qatl(The term Wajibul Qatl means that according to their version of Sharia, Ahmadis must be killed)
Police officials were informed by local Ahmadis – for whatever it was worth.
Mullas stepped up their anti-Ahmadiyya campaign. People are instigated to implement social boycott against Ahmadis. A building contractor who undertook to build an Ahmadi’s house was told by extremists to stop the construction.
Bucha Band, District Umerkot: Some new converts were made to recant by mullas in August 2000. Extremists howled themselves hoarse to implicate Ahmadis in various criminal cases under the anti-Ahmadiyya laws. The authorities appeared sympathetic to them on the pretext of law and order.
District Badin: Sipah Sahaba (SSP) organized an open air anti-Ahmadiyya meeting at Khadpro Stop on May 10. A mulla, Pyar Ali Khadai made a long speech and summed it up as follows:
- Do not let Ahmadis bury their dead in your graveyards.
- Implement social boycott of Ahmadis. Do not let them drink water at your restaurants. Do not let them even sit there.
- Do not allow the construction of the desalination drain that would benefit Ahmadis.
- You were wrong when you shut down your business at the demise of Ilyas Qadiani on the excuse that he was a very good man. You must make amends by condemning him openly.
- He urged an Ahmadi turncoat to organize an anti-Ahmadiyya meeting.
Other Towns in Sind: Open-air meetings were held in most of the big towns against Ahmadis. The participants were educated on registration of criminal cases against Ahmadis under religious laws. Although the attendance level in these meetings was low, the loud speakers are turned on high for all to listen even if they had decided to stay at home.
Mullas do not spare Ahmadis even in the capital. The Khatame Nabuwwat Educational Society distributed pamphlets in October 2000 in large numbers to generate anti-Ahmadi hatred among the masses. They compiled a list of out-of-context short excerpts from the writings of the Founder of Ahmadiyyat. They also published corrupted photographs of Ahmadiyya mosques to misguide the general public about Ahmadiyya articles of faith. In November, a few miscreants broke open the lock of the outer gate of the Ahmadi missionary’s residence and entered the premises at 10.p.m. As he and members of his family were still up and about, the miscreants fled. Similar incident had earlier happened at the residence of Mr. Zafrullah, another missionary. It seems the miscreants want to create a sense of fear and lack of security among Ahmadis living in Islamabad/Rawalpindi.
Death of a fugitive
Mr Nasir Ahmad Baloch, an Ahmadi of Kotri, had been charged under the Blasphemy section 295C for burning a copy of the highly provocative anti-Ahmadiyya periodical Khatame Nabuwwat in December 1998. Afraid of the prescribed death punishment, he fled from Kotri along with his family and went into hiding. He had a wife and six children to support. The family lived in fear and want. The poor fellow reportedly died during January while in desolation.
His elder son, Mr Zafar Ahmad faces the same charge as his father. The mischief of this law defies description.
An eminent Ahmadi lawyer on hit list
The press got hold of a list issued by the Government of Punjab that contained the names of individuals who were on the hit list of religious terrorists. The daily AWAZ, Lahore published the list on 23 May 2000. The list carried also the name of Khawaja Sarferaz, an Ahmadi advocate, who was very active in defending Ahmadis facing prosecution under religious laws. Khawaja Sarfraz was gravely wounded a few years ago by the notorious Aslam Qureshi who stabbed him with a knife in courts’ premises. Aslam Qureshi was patronized by notables like Raja Zafrul Haque and Maulvi Manzoor Chinioti. During the Zia regime when he disappeared for a few years, Chinioti and his fellow mullas cried hoarse and accused Hadrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad of arranging Qureshi’s murder. Fortunately, Qureshi reappeared and told the police that he had gone to Iran.
The Year of Human Rights and Dignity
The government of Pakistan arranged a convention on Human Rights and Human Dignity in Islamabad on 21 and 22 April 2000. It was mentioned that among other actions in the field of human rights, there was need to have a procedure whereby the Blasphemy Law would not be misused. Minority representatives stated firmly that they had never demanded Separate Electorate. So the organizers took note of the recommendation of various groups that Separate Electorate should be replaced with Joint Electorate so that minorities are brought back into the mainstream of Pakistani’s polity. The government declared the Year 2000 as the Year of Human Rights and Dignity. It is a pity that no progress was made later on any of the two major issues of the Blasphemy Law and the Joint Electorate. As far the general treatment of Ahmadiyya Community is concerned, there was no improvement as the present Annual Report has shown. A great opportunity has been lost to improve the human rights situation of a persecuted community. The military government had the inclination and the power to deliver but regrettably not the will. Its empty declarations will only add to the heap in the dustbin of history.
Tension all over
As the anti-Ahmadiyya law is a federal law, its impact is felt all over the country. The anti-Ahmadiyya Majlis Tahaffuz Khatme Nabuwwat has its branches in all the provinces including Azad Kashmir. As such they keep the pot boiling at various locations. There are no safe havens for Ahmadis in Pakistan. To give an idea of the extent of anti-Ahmadiyya turbulence, some locations are mentioned below.
Khayaban Colony is a new middle class residential area, which is under development at Faisalabad. Some Ahmadis have taken up residence there, and to meet their needs of worship, they have built a decent prayer center there. Mullas did not take to this kindly and decided to launch a campaign of agitation against the small community.
At first they persuaded a local journalist to print scandalous news about the development of another Rabwah in Faisalabad. The Daily Panah, splashed a seven-column banner headline on its front page declaring that a formidable conspiracy had been unearthed to build a new Rabwah. Bizarre details and fabricated stories were made out to support their main theme. It was also demanded of the government to deal with Ahmadis with a firm hand and suppress this vicious (imagined) conspiracy.
Simultaneously, the clerics undertook an extensive campaign of wall chalking. It was declared that Qadianis are infidels and apostates. They were equated with Satan and thus intolerable. A war was declared against them. It was also advertised that Ahmadis are Wajbul Qatl i.e. liable to be put to death. They were declared cursed and fuel for hell.
Ahmadis got very worried at this campaign of vilification. They contacted higher police and government authorities about this threat to the peace of the neighborhood. They have also met the president of the building society, but to no avail.
The tension was maintained at a high level by the opponents. Therefore, Ahmadis had to miss out prayers at the Center. They had to take precautionary measures. The administration, as usual, tried to appease the Mulla and put pressure on Ahmadis. Ahmadi businesses have suffered, and some Ahmadis are considering shifting to other neighborhoods. Mullas have openly threatened to use force to expel Ahmadis from the Colony. The authorities took no action against these terrorist clerics.
Eventually the authorities struck on January 2, 2000, when a magistrate arrived at the site of the prayer center along with a contingent of police, and went inside ostensibly to check if the construction had taken place according to the plan. However, he ordered the lower hall, that was used by worshipers for prayers, to be sealed. The mulla had won once again, despite the proclamation of the military regime.
Anti-Ahmadiyya mullas decided in August to precipitate a riot in the district town of Badin in Sind. They planned in advance and spent a fortnight telling people all over the district to assemble in Badin on 23 August to take out a procession and put up a show of force against the ‘nefarious’ activities of Qadianis. The leaders of the agitation took to extensive wall-chalking. At Badin, Ahmadis have only a small community. They got worried and took some defensive measures, whatever were possible. They met the district authorities and conveyed to them their concern about peace and safety. The Superintendent of Police assured them the necessary measures.
On 23rd August, the mullas got together. Most of the participants belonged to Sipah Sahaba, JUI and Khatame Nabuwwat factions. The procession was small, as the public in general did not support the mulla in his venture. The procession chanted anti-Ahmadiyya and anti-American slogans. They also shouted in favour of Usama bin Laden. The speakers spoke most offensive and provocative words against the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, and the crowd burnt his effigy. The participants attacked a wayside open restaurant of a Hindu, and damaged it. They also had a brawl with seamen who were having tea at a teashop. It resulted in a clash in which two seamen and some mullas were injured. The police intervened and restored calm. Mullas intended to enforce a wheel-jam situation but it failed completely. In general, the common man kept himself aloof from their mischief, so their attempts to create a law and order situation failed. Generally the masses expressed their aversion and contempt for the day’s proceedings.
A few Ahmadis at Data could not bear the long stretch of persecution and eventually yielded to revert to the majority denomination. They were told by the anti-Ahmadiyya activists to desist from all social dealings with their Ahmadi relatives. To make this drive more effective, they called for a general and strict boycott of all Ahmadis. Mullas announced through amplifiers from all the three village mosques that Ahmadis are not to be sold anything, nor they will be allowed to board public transport; anyone who does not comply will himself be treated as a Qadiani. Even land tenants were told to stop cultivation. The local Shezan factory, owned by Ahmadis, has lost business and is operating part-time. The entire situation has taken a turn for the worse, and Ahmadis are facing hardships and getting worried.
Takht Hazara, District Sargodha
The opponents distributed provocative pamphlets against the Ahmadiyya Community and its holy founder. They gathered street urchins and moved around in bands chanting anti-Ahmadiyya slogans. They approached the authorities formally to deprive Ahmadis of their site meant as mission and mosque. They damaged and desecrated graves at the Ahmadiyya graveyard on 5 September. Ahmadis approached the authorities who advised them to remain calm and bear up with the hardship.
Dodha, District Sargodha
The opponents have turned to wall chalking from Riaz Abad Stop to Sial Mor. The writings include ‘Death to Mirzaiat’, ‘Friends of Qadianis are Traitors against Islam’, and other debasing and abusive appellations which are difficult to translate and offensive to put on paper.
An open-air-anti-Ahmadiyya conference was held at the main mosque on October 2. Posters were pasted all over the town. The speakers spoke with venom against Ahmadiyyat and its holy personages. The editor of the Daily Ausaf attended, and gave full coverage to the conference in his paper. The weekly Attock (Nr.33) gave the headline: Qadianis are culpable against Muslims and the Islamic World. The Ausaf published its editor’s recommendations to the conference, which included, 1) Waging of Jihad; 2) Indication of the holder’s religion in his national identity card etc. He stated that an international conspiracy was underway to hand over the ‘Held-Kashmir’ to Qadianis who are supported by Jews (The Daily Ausaf; 3 October 1999). Mr. Hamid Mir, the Editor of the Daily Ausaf, Islamabad, is apparently competing for the international award of’ The greatest liar among newspaper editors’.
The mullas of the Khanewal area have declared a Jihad against Qadianis. The people have paid them little attention. Parties like Sipah Sahaba remain, however, active. In September they abducted a new convert to Ahmadiyyat, Muhammad Akbar, and forcibly obtained from him in writing a declaration of renunciation of his conversion and made him sign a torrent of abuse against the founder of Ahmadiyyat. They also made him promise that in future he will have nothing to do with Ahmadis.
Nawankot, district Sheikhupura
During September and October, visiting mullas did their best to spoil the peace of the village and succeeded. Ahmadis have been deprived of the little freedom of faith they had. A social boycott was imposed upon them. Ahmadi farmers were unable to sell their fresh vegetables, which had to be then dumped as waste. Many of the village-folk were coerced to stop talking to their Ahmadi neighbors. A crowd beat up an Ahmadi youth, Nazir Ahmad. His arm was fractured at three places. They left him as dead, and then telephoned the police that Qadianis had attacked their mulla. They sent an application to the police against 32 Ahmadis falsely alleging that they are involved in terrorism. A non-Ahmadi elder told the police that all these accusations are false and the police should take no action.
In October, Mr. Mushtaq Ahmad, an Ahmadi, was one of the invitees to the reception of Pir Bachhal Shah, the Provincial Finance Advisor who had come to visit the area. When Mushtaq arrived at the site, he was noticed by a mulla who in league with three others raised hue and cry over Mushtaq’s presence. They attacked him claiming that a Qadiani had no right to visit their area. They asked a bunch of madrassa students to join the agitation. They started raising slogans. The police initially took no action, but when the situation worsened, they intervened and rescued Mushtaq.
Mushtaq left the place and went to Khairpur to inform the community’s district president of the incident. The president advised him not to immediately go back to his village, so he stayed on at Khairpur for five days. During his absence, mullas went to the police station at Gambat in the form of a procession and made a formal report against Mushtaq. The police raided his house and behaved badly with the womenfolk. The Ahmadi elders contacted the visiting VIP, who intervened and stopped further proceedings by the police. Mr. Mushtaq, thereafter, could return home.
The situation took some time to calm down. Mullas started a vilification campaign against Ahmadis in the local Sindhi press. They accused Ahmadis of being agents of Israel and the Indian RAW. The mulla does not mind hitting the rock bottom of decency in his opposition to Ahmadiyyat.
There was an electric failure during the night of 18 September 1999 in Khoski. The mullas availed of the situation and undertook extensive wall chalking against Ahmadis all over the town. Perhaps the electric-breakdown was preplanned. The wall chalking was very provocative and profane. The next Friday, mullas declared in the mosques that wall chalking would be thenceforth undertaken during daytime and this time on the walls of Qadianis’ houses. Ahmadis thus had to stay at home to prevent any harm to their families.
Ahmadis contacted the local community leaders and told them that the mulla was exploiting them and disturbing the town’s peace. They agreed and took steps to contain the situation.
The mullas of the Majlis Tahaffuz Khatme Nabuwwat, Peshawar held an open-air general conference at Chowk Qissakhawny Bazar on 7 September. As usual, they took to slander, blasphemy and abuse against the Ahmadiyya community. They threateningly advised Ahmadis to rejoin Islam or get prepared to face the penalty of death imposed by Sharia upon apostates. The sentence would be implemented through stoning or hanging, they clarified. They also urged the residents to sever all social relations with Ahmadis. When someone asked if people could offer condolences at the recent death of an Ahmadi’s aunt, they were told: “No. Anyone who attends her funeral will himself become an apostate, and his marriage bond with his wife will automatically break.” One Mulla told the audience that Pakistan would soon have a government of Taliban. Thereafter, Qadianis would be either expelled from the country or hanged-no Qadiani will be spared in Pakistan. The conference received publicity in the local press.
Ghatialian, district Sialkot
The situation in this village remained tense for months. In September, one Faiz Ahmad, a non-Ahmadi who was on friendly terms with local Ahmadis was murdered by an unknown killer. The opposition asked the police to implicate an Ahmadi. A few weeks earlier, a truce was arranged between Ahmadi and non-Ahmadi factions of the town. Attempts were made by members of the Majlis Khatame Nabuwwat to upset the accord. They took up again random firing and street vandalism. Ahmadis strove hard to remain calm and bear up the situation with calm and poise. They kept the authorities informed of the developments.
Hilalpur, District Sargodha
The Majlis Khatame Nabuwwat opposition remained active for months to deprive Ahmadis of their mosque. Ahmadis’ determination to defend their place of worship deterred their attempts. They then approached the authorities with the plea to demolish the Ahmadiyya mosque and construct there, instead, a filth depot. The authorities appointed a Commission to look into the dispute. The opponents mounted a propaganda campaign in newspaper. The issue became very serious. Ahmadis could only pray and hope for the best, as it is ‘they’ who are the accusers, the witnesses and the judges simultaneously.
Anti Ahmadiyya Conferences
Anti-Ahmadiyya open-air conferences are a favorite venue with the Mulla to fan the fires of hatred and violence among the innocent masses. He indulges in a torrent of abuse, slander, profanity and crude jokes to keep his audience attentive and interested. Decency and truth in his speech are of no importance to him. In fact mulla specializes in haranguing his audience to commit any outrage. The authorities turn a blind eye to his theatrical performance and hope for the best. If Ahmadis are the target, the officials do not care – after all, persecution of Ahmadis is now a self-imposed constitutional duty of the state. Such conferences are held all-the-year round in one town or another. A few of these are mentioned below.
Takhat Hazara, district Sargodha
Anti-Ahmadiyya agitation went on in Takht Hazara over many months in 1999. Syed Athar Hussain, an activist planned to deprive the local Ahmadiyya Community of its land that it had purchased in 1968 to build a mosque. He applied to the authorities that the land belonged to the State; hence Ahmadis should be ejected from there. The authorities decided in his favour, so Ahmadis approached a Civil Court for a judicial decision. The Civil Judge decided in favour of Ahmadis in June 1999.
Almost four months later, when Ahmadis wanted to rebuild the structure, Hussain and his party rekindled the agitation. Fiery speeches were delivered in an open-air meeting on 3 October. On 4 October, a theft took place in the Ahmadiyya Centre. Two days later, anti-Ahmadiyya verbosity was blared through loudspeakers at an Urs. Subsequently, Hussain and his two colleagues fired a few shots at the Ahmadiyya mosque to convey their message. On 26 October, they took out a procession and shouted anti-Ahmadiyya slogans when close to the Ahmadiyya mosque. They also reported to the police that the Qadiani mosque was a depot of arms and ammunition. The police, therefore, raided the mosque at about 11 p.m. and carried out a thorough search. They found no arms and no ammunition. However, they took along four Ahmadis and four of the opposition to the police station and registered a criminal case against all of them under PPC 107/151. The mob demolished the four walls of the Ahmadiyya Centre and took away even the bricks. On 30 October, notorious mullas like Toofani of Sargodha and Afzal from Mandi Bahauddin came over and delivered highly provocative speeches. The situation became tense. The authorities dilly-dallied. Had they acted firmly against the agitators, the agitation would have calmed down in no time.
Moro, District Naushero Firoz (Sind)
Mullas of the Khatme Nabuwwat Organization held an open-air meeting on 11 March 1999 at Moro after sunset. Mulla Allah Wasaya (one of the self-styled Conquerors of Rabwah) and other clerics addressed the meeting. They made the most obscene and inflammatory speeches, which went on till past-midnight. The attendance was poor but they had installed powerful loudspeakers, so that their message of hate could reach even those who had decided not to attend. Mulla Wasaya urged the people to establish a social boycott against Ahmadis.
Mullas held their annual Khatame Nabuwwat Conference at Kunri on March 10, 1999. It started after the night prayers. Mullas Allah Wasaya and Ikramul Haq Khairi used all kinds of slander and insult against the holy founder of the Ahmadiyya Community. They urged their audience to start a Jihad against Qadianis and assured them that the murder of a Qadiani would entitle them a place in paradise. The authorities took no action against these clerics. In fact, Chairman of the Khidmat Committee was conspicuous by his presence at this convention, which openly promoted violence and communal terrorism.
A Finality of Prophethood conference was held at Hafizabad on May 22, 1999. It lasted till 1 a.m. Among those who attended and delivered anti-Ahmadiyya speeches were Pir Arif Bokhari MPA and Yusuf Tihani the district president of Jamaat Islami. The conference passed a number of resolutions, but great emphasis was laid on their demand to implement the Sharia punishment for apostasy i.e. death.
A highly provocative anti-Ahmadiyya conference was allowed by authorities to be held at Rabwah on September 8. There were three sessions which continued till 0230 a.m. The speakers included Mullas Azam Tariq, Manzoor Chinioti, Hafeez Mekki, Ahmad Ali, Anwar of Dubai etc. They indulged in calumny and slander beyond description. Following are some of the Resolutions passed at the Conference:
- 1. We congratulate the Prime Minister, the Punjab Assembly and the Cabinet on changing the name of this Qadiani town to Chenab Nagar. Now the decision should be imposed upon Qadianis.
- 2. Anti-Qadiani Ordinance should be enforced.
- 3. Religion of the holder should be entered in the National Identity Card.
- 4. Sharia punishment for apostasy should be implemented (i.e. Death).
Chak 20, district Mandi Bahauddin
They held a meeting on 25 August in which outside speakers namely, Pir Afzal Qadri, Mulla Anwar Qureshi and Hafiz Chishti and three others spoke to the crowd. Pir Qadri and Mulla Qureshi were highly blasphemous against the founder of Ahmadiyyat, and incited the participants to violence. They told them to boycott all Ahmadis. Pir Qadri proposed that all Ahmadiyya mosques and properties be confiscated. The meeting went on till 1.30 past midnight.
The next day they held a similar meeting at Chak 27. They undertook wall chalking as well.
Ahmadabad Sangra (Sind)
A meeting was held here on 5 September. A guest speaker, Ghulam Mustafa from Muslim Colony, Rabwah had been invited to speak to the crowd. He indulged in a great deal of slander, abuse, calumny and lies against the holy founder of Ahmadiyyat. In fact, some of the participants of the meeting asked him to desist from such foul language. He urged the audience to initiate criminal cases under the Anti-Ahmadiyya Ordinance and the Blasphemy Law, against Ahmadis.
Adrahmma, District Sargodha
The majority of this village are members of the Ahmadiyya Community. Mullas make it a point to hold anti-Ahmadiyya conference here every year. This year they held it on 26 September. Notorious mullas like Akram Toofani (the adapted name literally means a ‘cyclone’) and Allah Wasaya addressed the audience. They used loudspeakers without due permission and used abusive language as usual. The Ahmadiyya population, however, used restraint, and did not react to the provocative proceedings.
Dharakna, district Chakwal
An anti-Ahmadiyya conference was held here on October 26. As usual, the speakers made abusive and inflammatory speeches against Ahmadis and their spiritual leaders. The mosque where they held this conference is led by an Imam who is a government servant. Mulla Manzoor Ahmad was invited from Chiniot. The event spoiled the friendly ambiance of the village.
Freedom of religion denied
Dodial (Azad Kashmir)
Some miscreants at Dodial were active in February and March to harass the local Ahmadiyya community. They were in collaboration with the police. The President of Ahmadiyya Jamaat was required by the Police SHO to come to the police station and explain the community’s religious position and mode of worship. Two vernacular newspapers from Islamabad gave adverse publicity to Ahmadiyya presence and life at Dodial. Mullas spoke venomously from the pulpit.
On 17 February, a dozen mullas and miscreants armed with knives etc came over and contacted the local Ahmadi president. They issued some warnings and told him that he was Wajibul Qatal, (one who must be killed as per Sharia). On 19th February, when Ahmadis were assembling for their Friday congregation, they were informed of an opposition plan that involved violence. So they hired a wagon and went to a neighboring village, Tarrutta to offer their Friday prayers. Later in the day, six policemen came and told two of the leading Ahmadis to proceed to the police station for questioning.
Ahmadis of Kotri eagerly made arrangements to watch the proceedings of the Annual Convention of Ahmadiyya Community UK, through satellite transmissions of the MTA. At this occasion, they benefit from the spiritual and moral guidance provided by the Supreme Head of the Worldwide Ahmadiyya Jamaat. However, the Mulla did not like this. The clerics conspired to disrupt Ahmadiyya prayers and the TV reception.
According to their plan, mullas arrived at the Ahmadiyya Center well before time, set up a sound amplifier outside and switched on loud music and started vulgar dancing. Ahmadis maintained their calm. A mulla delivered a fiery sermon and demanded that Ahmadiyya Center be closed down. Mullas held a closed-door meeting on 23 August at 9 p.m. and decided to take out a procession on 27 August and precipitate a situation for police action. The situation remained tense for weeks.
Prize on the head of Khalifatul Masih IV (Supreme Head of the Worldwide Ahmadiyya Jamaat)
According to a news items appearing in the Daily Jurat, Karachi of 30 September, 1998 and the Daily ‘Assalamo Alaikum Pakistan’, London of 1 October 1998 the life of the Supreme Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat was threatened for a cash reward of ten million rupees. Both the newspapers claim wide circulation, the former in Pakistan and the latter in the Urdu-speaking community in England. One Khanzada Abdul Hamid Khan, who chaired a meeting of the Islamic National Front at Baitul Mujahedeen Karachi, reportedly offered the cash reward. The government of Pakistan made no statement as to what action, if any, it took against this instigator and exporter of terrorism.